By Pedro C. Moreno
Published November 1, 1993
LATIN AMERICA IS LIVING IN AN AGE OF profound transformations. Both spiritually and socially. In fact, it has been said that the recent spiritual revival that is taking place in the continent, due to the Protestant expansion, but also within Catholic circles, may well be one of the last hopes for the economic and social advancement of Latin America. Others doubt that the rise of evangelicalism will result in greater economic and social development in the region.1 However, all admit that an enormous transference in religious affiliation is taking place as Latin Americans seek to have their spiritual needs satisfied.
According to recent statistics, in a region once considered a Catholic stronghold, Protestants are growing at a rate of 400 per hour, which leads demographers to predict that Latin America will be evangelical before the end of the twenty-first century. 2 Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo from Nicaragua, addressing the Vatican College of Cardinals in 1991 pointed out that “protestants in Latin America have grown surprisingly, from 4 million in 1967 to 30 million in 1985.”
On his part, Cardinal Ernesto C. Ahumada from Mexico stated that in the last 30 years “defections from the Catholic church) to other religious groups have tripled in the Dominican Republic, have increased by 500% in El Salvador and Costa Rica, and have grown by 700% in Guatemala.“3 No wonder an evangelical president was recently elected in this latter country. In general, it is estimated that 20% of all Latin Americans are Protestant.
One could ask, what the reason, the causes, the motives for this spiritual transformation that has gone beyond the religious realm to spill into economics, politics, law, and other related areas. Some would say it is something to worry about. Others may look with expectation and hope at what has been termed by FORBES magazine a situation “quite literally revolutionary – more so than Fidel Castro or Che Guevara could ever be.” Referring to the specific Brazilian case, FORBES goes on to say that as a result of evangelical Protestantism having replaced Roman Catholicism as the country’s most widely practiced faith, “the old Brazilian order, based upon a rigid hierarchy and social immobility, has broken down. A new social atmosphere, one more compatible with capitalism and democracy is emerging.” FORBES continues: “Upwardly striving urban poor are encouraged by religious teachings and support groups that preach the power of individuals to change their lives through faith. This contrasts sharply with the old attitude of resignation to one’s fate and a glorification of poverty.“4
The Separation Debate
One of the reasons that contributed to the above-mentioned protestant expansion is the “official” or “established” character of the Roman Catholic church in countries of Latin America. Countries that have had the Catholic church as the official one, not only recognized it as such, but “sustained” it with government subsidies to pay for the salaries of the hierarchy, salaries for teachers of Catholic religion (in the public schools), and subsidies for church schools, refurbishing of temples, etc. This situation still applies to countries such as Argentina, Costa Rica and Bolivia. While some supporters of the official church thought that a government-backed religion would be stronger and more lasting than the others, history and reality are demonstrating the contrary.
Michael W. McConnel and Richard A. Posner in a recent study and in response to the question, “Does it help or hinder religion … (to favor) some denominations at the expense of others?” answer that “it is not entirely true, as it might appear to be, that subsidizing religion must help (a specific) religion and taxing it must hurt it.” These writers quote Enlightenment thinker David Hume (himself hostile to religion) who supported the establishment of an official church with the purpose of dampening religious fervor. “He thought that clergymen on government payrolls, like other civil servants, would lose their zeal.“5 This is exactly what has happened to the Catholic church in Latin America.
Catholic author Richard Rodriguez, puts it well: “My beloved Catholic Church has become an activist in the city, doing social work in plain clothes. Meanwhile Catholicism has deferred its rich prayer life – the rosaries, devotions, and novenas – to another age.“6 In other words, the Catholic church became so involved with the state, and the social and political problems of Latin America that it lost its primary goal, the ministry of satisfying the spiritual needs of the people. This spiritual ministry has not been taken by the evangelical church, which is also starting to go beyond that into the social, economic, and political realm, hopefully without forgetting that its main task, as a church, is the spiritual one.
Position of Simon Bolivar
Simon Bolivar, one of the greatest thinkers and liberators that Latin America has had, commenting upon church and state relations and why he had not included any reference to religion in his 1826 project for a Bolivian Constitution said: “The state cannot rule the conscience of the subjects, neither give an award or a punishment, because God is the only (higher) power.” He further stated: “Religion is the law of conscience. Any law upon it nullifies it, because as it imposes the need for this duty, takes away the merit of faith which is the basis of religion…. The sacred precepts and dogmas are useful, beautiful, and of metaphysic evidence, we all know how to profess them, but this duty is moral, not political.” And Bolivar concluded: “Being all this (religion) of divine jurisdiction, at first sight it seems to me sacrilegious and profane to mix our ordinances with the commandments of the Lord. To prescribe religion, thus, does not belong to the legislators.“7
On his part José Artigas, liberator of Uruguay, addressing the 1813 Constitutional Convention and openly favoring religious liberty for all stated: “we shall promote civil and religious liberty to its maximum imaginable extension.“8 A similar position was taken by Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela, Francisco Morazan in Central America, Bernardo O’Higgins in Chile, Bernadino Rivadavia, Moreno, and Belgrano in Argentina, Vicente Rocafuerte in Mexico, and others.
Vicente Rocafuerte, an Ecuador-born patriot and one of the “ideologists” for the national independence of the Latin American countries, himself a Catholic, recognized that in the United States the relationship between church and state had been remarkably solved by separating these two institutions. In 1831, in an age hostile to liberty of conscience and worship, Rocafuerte wrote his book “Essay on Religious Tolerance” in which he stated that “a dominant religion is oppressive. That is why the early Christians were also persecuted.” For him the separation of church and state was “the genius of the century.“9
Recent Developments Concerning Church and State
One of the Latin American countries that most recently has separated the church from the State is Paraguay.
In a surprising but understandable move, the Paraguayan Catholic Bishops Conference joined a group of 14 protestant churches in asking for the separation of church and state in that country. The new Paraguayan constitution guarantees religious freedom and the separation of church and state. It also eliminates the requirement to profess the Catholic religion for the President of the republic.
In June of 1991, with the participation of two evangelicals, and with the support of indigenous peoples and others, Colombia’s Constitutional Convention took away the official status of the Catholic church and declared that “all religious confessions and churches are equally free before the law” (art. 19 of the new Constitution) in spite of the Catholic church. The Colombian Congress is not discussing a religious liberty law which, according to its framers (evangelical lawyers) would further guarantee and detail the equality of all churches and their rights to freedom of worship.
On its part, the Lower Chamber of the Mexican Congress has just approved a “Law on Religious Associations and Public Worship” that attempts, at least partially, to restore religious liberties in that country. In its 6th article the law establishes that “religious associations are equal before the law in rights and obligations.” This means that there are not special privileges for the Catholic Church.
Evangelicals in Chile are pressing the Congress to grant evangelical churches the legal status of entity of public law. Currently the only church in the country that has such a status is the Catholic church. This new status would relieve the evangelical churches from having to register with the government, give some tax benefits to them, and especially improve their current legal situation which now places the evangelical churches at the same level of sports clubs, cultural associations, and the like.
Argentina, where the Catholic church is still the “official” one, and where the President must be Catholic, has now started a process of debate concerning this topic. President Carlos Menem has manifested his desire to eliminate the “religious test” for the President, and believes the Catholic hierarchy will not oppose this measure. There is also strong support for the separation of church and state.10 Currently, the Argentinean Congress is discussing a law on religious liberty which, due to its controversial and unclear provisions, is not expected to pass anytime soon.
Concerning Bolivia, the struggle for the separation of church and state continues, this time with the support from not only evangelical circles but even from some sectors of the Catholic church. Some political parties have also expressed their desire to see a constitutional amendment to provide for church and state separation. At this moment, article 3 of the Constitution establishes that “the State recognizes and sustains the Roman, Apostolic, Catholic church. It guarantees the freedom of worship.”
Latin America has had one of the most extended experiences with the establishment of and “official” church. For the most part the results have been negative. Negative for the Catholic church, which not only has seen an increasing decline of the number of its faithful, but also has suffered the impact of the abuses, mistakes, and shortcomings of the supposedly “Catholic” central governments. Negative for the country, because it did not allow the development of an environment of true pluralism in the religious realm, affecting even the political realm.
With the new constitutional reforms that most Latin American countries have undergone and are still undergoing, and the consolidation of the separation of church and state in most of them, there is hope that the religious climate will improve, thus providing a better environment not only for the evangelical churches that have long suffered discrimination, but even for the revitalization of the Catholic church. As the wisdom of history and biblical principals have shown, it is better that the state perform its specific civil responsibilities, which the church dedicates itself to the satisfaction of the spiritual needs of the people.
Last but not least, we should never forget that the separation of church and state does not mean separating God or the Bible from public life. Christianity is relevant to all areas of life, and can impregnate them with biblical principles. But that work should be carried out by individuals and never by uniting the church and the state at an institutional level.
1 Timothy Goodman, The Reformation of Latin America, The American Enterprise, July/August 1991; Pedro C. Moreno, Latin American Evangelicals: A Critique.
2 Richard Rodriguez, Losing Ground, Crisis, November 1989, p.40.
3 National and International Religion Report, April 22, 1991, p.3.
4 FORBES, October 15, 1990, p.57
5 Michael W. McConnell, Richard A. Posner, An Economic Approach to Issues of Religious Freedom, The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, Winter 1989, p.54, 55.
6 Rodriguez, op. cit., at 42.
7 Luis D. Salem, El Dios de Nuestros Libertadores, 1977.
8 Arnoldo Canclini, La Libertad de Cultos, 1987, at 75.
9 Alejandro Soto Cardenas, Influencia de la Independencia de los Estados Unidos en la Constitucion de las Naciones Latinoamericanas, 1979, at 159.
10 La Nacion, April 12, 1992.
INVOCATIONS TO GOD IN CONSTITUTIONAL PREAMBLES IN THE AMERICAS
- ARGENTINA: “… invocating the protection of God, source of all reason and justice, we order, decree, and establish this Constitution, for the Argentinean Nation.”
- BOLIVIA: None
- BRAZIL: “… under the protection of God…”
- CANADA: “Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of the law:”
- COLOMBIA: “… invocating the protection of God …”
- COSTA RICA: “… invocating the name of God …”
- CHILE: “With the merit of these precedents and invocating the name of God Almighty.”
- ECUADOR: “Invocates the protection of God …”
- MEXICO: None
- PANAMA: “… invocating the protection of God …”
- PARAGUAY: “… invocating God …”
- PERU: “Invocating the protection of God.”
- UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: The Declaration of Independence says: “We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.”
- URUGUAY: None
- VENEZUELA: “… invocates the protection of God Almighty.”
Forerunner - Home » The Forerunner Newspaper » Latin America
Your comments are welcome!
“Give me liberty or give me death!”
Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.
The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).
Welcome to the Second American Revolution!
This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.
$14.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Who is the Real Jesus?
Ever since the dawn of modern rationalism, skeptics have sought to use textual criticism, archeology and historical reconstructions to uncover the “historical Jesus” — a wise teacher who said many wonderful things, but fulfilled no prophecies, performed no miracles and certainly did not rise from the dead in triumph over sin.
Over the past 100 years, however, startling discoveries in biblical archeology and scholarship have all but vanquished the faulty assumptions of these doubting modernists. Regrettably, these discoveries have often been ignored by the skeptics as well as by the popular media. As a result, the liberal view still holds sway in universities and impacts the culture and even much of the church.
The Real Jesus explodes the myths of these critics and the movies, books and television programs that have popularized their views. Presented in ten parts — perfect for individual, family and classroom study — viewers will be challenged to go deeper in their knowledge of Christ in order to be able to defend their faith and present the truth to a skeptical modern world – that the Jesus of the Gospels is the Jesus of history — “the same yesterday, today and forever” (Hebrews 13:8). He is the real Jesus.
Speakers include: George Grant, Ted Baehr, Stephen Mansfield, Raymond Ortlund, Phil Kayser, David Lutzweiler, Jay Grimstead, J.P. Holding, and Eric Holmberg.
Ten parts, over two hours of instruction!
Running Time: 130 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Special Two-Disc Set!
After 40 years of intense study and world-wide ministry, Dr. Francis Schaeffer completed his crowning work of scholarship – to present profound truths in simple film language. Dr. Schaeffer’s brilliant analysis of the past and predictions for current trends have proven so uncannily accurate that this amazing series still feels contemporary almost three decades after its initial release. Ultimately, Schaeffer concludes that man’s only hope is a return to God’s Biblical absolute, the truth revealed in Christ through the Scriptures.
Available for the first time on DVD, this documentary spectacular also includes intimate in-depth conversations with Francis and Edith Schaeffer. With the on-disc study guide, this presentation forms a unique course of comprehensive study. While this series forms an innovative analysis of the past, this outstanding work is more than history. Each episode focuses on a significant era, yet speaks clearly to 21st-century man with answers for modern problems.
$49.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Download the Free Study Guide!
Just what is Calvinism?
Does this teaching make man a deterministic robot and God the author of sin? What about free will? If the church accepts Calvinism, won’t evangelism be stifled, perhaps even extinguished? How can we balance God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility? What are the differences between historic Calvinism and hyper-Calvinism? Why did men like Augustine, Luther, Calvin, Spurgeon, Whitefield, Edwards and a host of renowned Protestant evangelists embrace the teaching of predestination and election and deny free will theology?
This is the first video documentary that answers these and other related questions. Hosted by Eric Holmberg, this fascinating three-part, four-hour presentation is detailed enough so as to not gloss over the controversy. At the same time, it is broken up into ten “Sunday-school-sized” sections to make the rich content manageable and accessible for the average viewer.
Running Time: 257 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Download the Free Study Guide!
God’s Law and Society powerfully presents a comprehensive worldview based upon the ethical system found in the Law of God.
Speakers include: R.J. Rushdoony, George Grant, Howard Phillips, R.C. Sproul Jr., Ken Gentry, Gary DeMar, Jay Grimstead, Steven Schlissel, Andrew Sandlin, Eric Holmberg, and more!
Sixteen Christian leaders and scholars answer some of the most common questions and misconceptions related to this volatile issue:
1. Are we under Law or under Grace?
2. Does the Old Testament Law apply today?
3. Can we legislate morality?
4. What are the biblical foundations of government?
5. Was America founded as a Christian nation?
6. What about the separation of Church and State?
7. Is neutrality a myth?
8. What about non-Christians and the Law of God?
9. Would there be “freedom” in a Christian republic?
10. What would a “Christian America” look like?
Perfect for group instruction as well as personal Bible study.
Ten parts, over four hours of instruction!
Running Time: 240 minutes
Watch over 60 on-line video interviews from God’s Law and Society.
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)