By Jay Rogers
Published May 1, 2008
Why a book on the creeds and confessions of the Church?
I asked myself this question recently while I browsing through a Christian book store looking for such a volume. I found it unlikely that you will find such a book in your local Christian book store. At Christian colleges and seminaries, you might find some books with a chapter or two on the creeds and confessions, but even here, a book containing all the actual texts will not often be found. Out of the thousands of Christian books on the market today, those dealing with the creeds of the Church are scarce.
This is precisely the reason for this book. Someone might ask: Why would modern evangelicals be interested in a book containing nothing but the creeds of the early Church and the confessions of the Reformation period? I must reply that “interest” is not even an issue here. The creeds and confessions of the Church cannot be ignored no matter how obscure and esoteric they may seem to us today. For almost two thousand years, the creeds of the Church – statements defining the core elements of Christianity – have been the basis for determining what it means to be a Christian. If you deviated from these beliefs, you were rightly labelled a heretic. During the Protestant Reformation, various denominations issued lengthier statements of faith, called canons or confessions, which further defined what the Reformed churches believed about salvation, church polity and other issues. The Roman Catholics issued a statement from the Council of Trent which represented the view of Rome on these issues.
On the following pages you will find the texts of the most important creeds of the early Church, the confessions of the Protestant Reformation and the Council of Trent. There are a few notes of explanation, but no lengthy commentaries. My purpose in arranging the texts in this fashion is simply to put into the reader’s hands a book containing the creeds which all Christians throughout the ages – Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant – have believed. When we come to the Reformation period, we will see that the matter of salvation and church polity became a matter of debate between Protestant reformers and the Roman Catholic bishops. But even here there is a continuous thread of teaching that all Christians held in common.
This area of common ground for belief is called orthodoxy. The study of orthodoxy is the basis for promoting unity since, by definition, this is what all Christians must agree upon. Orthodoxy means literally “right opinion.” All true believers are orthodox, because they hold to right opinions concerning the most basic Christian doctrines.
To Christians of past centuries, preserving orthodoxy was something worth dying for. When Athanasius refuted Arianism in the fourth century, many held to a heresy which made Jesus Christ a lesser god than the Creator. Athanasius was persecuted for what he believed, but he stood for truth and prevailed. Thus “Athanasius contra mundum” (Athanasius against the world) became a proverb for future generations describing a person who will stand for the truth no matter what the cost. Throughout history, orthodoxy has not always been popular, but it has always defined what the true Christian believes. And the truth has prevailed.
Orthodoxy is the only basis for unity in the Church. Unity is also called catholicity, which means literally “universality.” True believers are, in this sense, catholic, because they hold to the univeral faith. Any form of unity that does not necessitate the preservation of orthodoxy is a false movement.
Modern Dissent from the Creeds
Driving down a country road sometime, you might see a fundamentalist church with a sign proudly proclaiming: “No book but the Bible – No creed but Christ.” The problem with this statement is that the word creed (from the Latin: credo) simply means “belief.” All Christians have beliefs, regardless of whether they are written. The creeds of the early Church were nothing more than scriptural statements of faith put into a systematic format.
The emphasis on creeds and confessions suffered a blow at the end of the last century, when conservative evangelicals reacted against Protestant denominations which fell into liberalism. “Dead orthodoxy” became a term to describe churches that officially held to the creeds and a confession of faith, yet had little fruit to testify to the genuine salvation of their members. To vanquish this apostacy, the evangelical movement (and the fundamentalists a few years later) emerged emphasizing salvation as an individual experience and the “literal” interpretation of Scripture.
The evangelical and fundamentalist movements were bulwarks against liberal apostacy. They did away with most of the public reading of Scripture, creeds and confessions. Liturgical services were abandoned in favor of a less formal, “seeker-friendly” type of evangelical meeting. There is certainly nothing wrong with this. But in abandoning the liturgy, they forgot to teach new church members the core elements of the faith found in the creeds and confessions. Deemphasizing the public reading of creeds was intentionally good, but it had disastrous consequences.
Among Pentecostals and Charismatics – two of the most recent groups to have come out of the evangelical and fundamentalist movements – we see an even greater emphasis on throwing off formalism and dead orthodoxy in favor of freedom of worship and spiritual experience. Yet we most often find heresies among churches that stress experience over doctrine. This is not to say that Christians must now throw off their experience and freedom in order to return to dead liturgical services. Simply, what is needed at this time is a revival of confessional orthodoxy.
We call this movement – “confessionalism” – which is nothing more than the historic faith of the Early Church Fathers, Augustine, Luther, Calvin and the Puritans (in areas which they agree). Through even a casual study of the creeds and confessions in this book, you will find that confessionalism stands in stark contrast to what is being offered today by evangelical Christianity.
Today, we have more options than ever before for becoming heretics. Modern evangelical leaders make all sorts of wild claims and assert teachings which are not orthodox. The 20th century Church has promoted many doctrines which are not historically orthodox. Pelagianism, sabellianism, modalism, antinomianism and gnosticism are frequent heresies. Yet I do not believe that modern evangelicals intentionally hold to heresies. I believe that some have propagated these ideas due to their ignorance or carelessness in what they have written and preached. Today, we all need a greater knowledge of confessional orthodoxy.
I offer the following recovery plan to all evangelicals – and especially my fellow Pentecostal and Charismatic brethren – who wish to build a comprehensive systematic theology based on biblical orthodoxy:
First, avoid the trash that is churned out by the modern evangelical pulp mills! Once this faulty paradigm is demolished, you should begin to build a new foundation for your faith by studying the creeds of the early Church. Then graduate to the more exhaustive and theologically comprehensive confessions of the Reformation period. (We have published just a few confessions here, but we have included a bibliography for further study.) You should then read some select writings of Augustine, Luther, Calvin, Knox, and the Puritans. With an understanding of confessional orthodoxy, you will see more clearly that these giants of the faith were theologically grounded in the creeds and confessions. Then read some of the sermons and writings of great modern Christian leaders such as George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, John Wesley, Charles Haddon Spurgeon and Charles Hodge.
To help remedy our current anemic condition, I offer this book, entitled simply, Creeds and Confessions of the Church. Let it be a bulwark against the “little foxes that spoil the vineyard” (Song 2:15) – the false and truly heretical doctrines of twentieth century evangelicalism. I hope that by the reading of these timeless, immutable truths, you will strengthen your resolve to press into God in prayer and study of Scripture in order to know Jesus Christ in a fuller, more intimate way.
- Jay Rogers, editor
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Who is the dreaded beast of Revelation?
Now at last, a plausible candidate for this personification of evil incarnate has been identified (or re-identified). Ken Gentry’s insightful analysis of scripture and history is likely to revolutionize your understanding of the book of Revelation — and even more importantly — amplify and energize your entire Christian worldview!
Historical footage and other graphics are used to illustrate the lecture Dr. Gentry presented at the 1999 Ligonier Conference in Orlando, Florida. It is followed by a one-hour question and answer session addressing the key concerns and objections typically raised in response to his position. This presentation also features an introduction that touches on not only the confusion and controversy surrounding this issue — but just why it may well be one of the most significant issues facing the Church today.
Ideal for group meetings, personal Bible study — for anyone who wants to understand the historical context of John’s famous letter “… to the seven churches which are in Asia.” (Revelation 1:4)
Running Time: 145 minutes
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What is true Revival and Spiritual Awakening?
Discover the answer in this eyewitness account by Dennis Kinlaw, President of Asbury College, Wilmore, Kentucky, who recounts the story of a visitation of the Holy Spirit in 1970. This is the presentation that has continued to spark the flames of Revival in the hearts of people around the world. Contains eyewitness footage from the Revival at Asbury College in 1970 in Wilmore, Kentucky.
Certain to challenge you to greater holiness and a deeper commitment to full-scale revival. Original news and private footage has been included. If you are a student who longs to see a spiritual awakening at your school, you must see this video!
“This simple video does a wonderful job of conveying something of God’s heart and power, Everyone we have ever shown this to has received an immediate impartation of faith for revival and the power of prayer.”
— Bob and Rose Weiner, Weiner Ministries Int’l
Running Time: 40 minutes
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Foundations in Biblical Eschatology
By Jay Rogers, Larry Waugh, Rodney Stortz, Joseph Meiring. High quality paperback, 167 pages.
All Christians believe that their great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, will one day return. Although we cannot know the exact time of His return, what exactly did Jesus mean when he spoke of the signs of His coming (Mat. 24)? How are we to interpret the prophecies in Isaiah regarding the time when “the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea” (Isa. 11:19)? Should we expect a time of great tribulation and apostasy or revival and reformation before the Lord returns? Is the devil bound now, and are the saints reigning with Christ? Did you know that there are four hermeneutical approaches to the book of Daniel and Revelation?
These and many more questions are dealt with by four authors as they present the four views on the millennium. Each view is then critiqued by the other three authors.
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Download the free Study Guide!
Is there a connection between pagan religion and the abortion industry?
This powerful presentation traces the biblical roots of child sacrifice and then delves into the social, political and cultural fall-out that this sin against God and crime against humanity has produced in our beleaguered society.
Conceived as a sequel and update to the 1988 classic, The Massacre of Innocence, the new title, The Abortion Matrix, is entirely fitting. It not only references abortion’s specific target – the sacred matrix where human beings are formed in the womb in the very image of God, but it also implies the existence of a conspiracy, a matrix of seemingly disparate forces that are driving this holocaust.
The occult activity surrounding the abortion industry is exposed with numerous examples. But are these just aberrations, bizarre yet anomalous examples of abortionists who just happen to have ties to modern day witchcraft? Or is this representative of something deeper, more sinister and even endemic to the entire abortion movement?
As the allusion to the film of over a decade ago suggests, the viewer may learn that things are not always as they appear to be. The Abortion Matrix reveals the reality of child-killing and strikes the proper moral chord to move hearts to fulfill the biblical responsibility to rescue those unjustly sentenced to death and to speak for those who cannot speak for themselves (Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9).
Speakers include: George Grant, Peter Hammond, RC Sproul Jr., Paul Jehle, Lou Engle, Rusty Thomas, Flip Benham, Janet Porter and many more.
Ten parts, over three hours of instruction!
Running Time: 195 minutes
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High Quality Paperback — 219 pages
Foundations in Biblical Orthodoxy
Driving down a country road sometime, you might see a church with a sign proudly proclaiming: “No book but the Bible — No creed but Christ.” The problem with this statement is that the word creed (from the Latin: credo) simply means “belief.” All Christians have beliefs, regardless of whether they are written.
Yet a single book containing the actual texts of the most important creeds of the early Church will not often be found. Out of the multitude of works on the evangelical Christian book market today, those dealing with the creeds of the Church are scarce.
Why Creeds and Confessions? provides a foundation of biblical orthodoxy as a defense against the false and truly heretical doctrines advanced by the spirit of this age.
$14.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)