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Should Church and State be Separated?

By Editorial Staff
Published September 1, 1989

by Norman de Jong, Ph.D.

The subject of church-state relationships has once again become a live issue. Although discussions about Supreme Court decisions banning prayer and Bible reading from public schools are not the regular fare for dinner table conversation or dormitory discussion, the supposed separation of church and state is worthy of analysis.

Since January, 1982, the “separation” issue has again come to public attention as a result of a federal judge’s ruling in the case designated as McLean vs. the Arkansas Board of Education. After a nationally publicized trial, the court decided that Act 590, which required public school teachers to give “balanced treatment” to both creation and evolution, was unconstitutional. The law was ruled unconstitutional, Judge Overton declared, because it violated “the separation of church and state.”

In late 20th century America, the vast majority of persons have come to assume that church and state should be separated. Ever since 1947, when Justice Hugo Black wrote the majority opinion for the Everson case, the phrase “wall of separation between church and state” has become progressively ingrained into the fabric of American jurisprudence.

During the 1960s that notion successively convinced a majority of the Supreme Court to outlaw prayer and Bible reading in the public schools, as well as the posting of the Ten Commandments on classroom walls. Since those early decisions in the Engel and Abingdon cases, the courts of the United States have become extremely skittish about any kind of government which permits or even vaguely promotes religious activity.

In Kent vs. Commissioner of Education, the Massachusetts Court in 1980 ruled that prayers offered in the public schools, in which God was petitioned for the release of the hostages in Iran, were unconstitutional. Even though the court sympathized with the content of the prayers under attack, the judges ruled that these prayers failed their test of secular purpose because they were an appeal to the Deity.

Another case, known as Widmar vs. Vincent, has given a somewhat different twist to this whole church-state controversy. At issue were the regulations of the University of Missouri at Kansas City which prohibited religious worship or teaching in any of its buildings or on its grounds. To the delight of many Christian campus groups, the Supreme Court ruled against the University, rejecting their argument that the state had a “compelling interest in maintaining strict separation” from the church.
In some cities, even your home is not a safe place for prayer and Bible study groups.

If the the present trend continues, as it very well might, it is conceivable that by the end of this century the only place where it will be legal for people to pray and read the Bible will be in our church sanctuaries on Sunday morning.

The Separation Myth

The vast majority of Americans have been taught to believe that church and state ought to be separated, within the last three decades, largely through the very courts which were designed to protect our liberties. We have allowed the Supreme Court to become our national educator without serious challenge.

We perpetuate this assumption peculiar to the United States because we fail to know our nation’s history and we no longer ascribe to our words the clear meanings historically given them. If we no longer study history, we are as guilty as those men and women who sit on the bench and interpret the laws for us perpetuating the myths where intelligence and common sense ought to prevail.

According to the contemporary American myth, the relationship between church and state would look as follows:

When confronting such an image, we should ask for a definition of terms: “What do you mean by the church? What do you mean by the state?”

According to the dictionary, the word “church” means: “The collective body of Christians; any body of worshippers; the building in which worshippers gather.” All creeds and all confessions describe the “church” as the body of Christ, those people who are chosen of God, or the Bride of the Savior. The “church” always refers to people. Pastors, elders, deacons, musicians, ushers, and all church members help to make up the church. The church is a body composed of people.

The “state”, according to the dictionary, is a “political body; any body of people occupying a common territory. Books on political science support the idea that the state is identified as people who live in a specified territory and who are responsible to the same laws and government. The state is made up of people, just as people make up the church.

The church is not an institution consisting of archaic doctrines, stain glass windows and lifeless religious relics. The state is not a disembodied monster residing beneath a silver dome or crimped into a manila folder in some bureaucratic jungle. No, the church and the state, as Webster so clearly points out, is a collection of persons.

In reality the church cannot be separated from the state. This presumed wall of separation between church and state is a figment of someone’s imagination, a thought which remains a thought and cannot become an actuality. The two are related but not synonymous. People are a significant part of both.

In the above illustration, the church is within the state – a part of it, but not equal to it. The state includes all those who live in it, both those who are members of the church and those who are not. The church is within the state, but not identical to it. When considering this separation issue, we should also ask the question: “What about that wall of separation? Does such language appear in our Constitution or in any of our laws?”

Without going into an exhaustive historical analysis, let me also assert that it was not the founding father’s intention to attempt the impossible separation between church and state. The first amendment simply and clearly states that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”

It should be noted clearly that Congress was thereby prevented from designating an established church; for that was to remain the prerogative of the separate states. In Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Connecticut, the established state church was the Congregational. In Virginia, it was the Episcopal. In a number of others it was more broadly specified to be the Protestant Christian Religion, with almost all the states specifying in their constitutions the religious requirements for holding office. In the Delaware state constitution, for example, it was stipulated that any person who aspired to state office would have to make the following oath:

“I, _____________ , do profess faith in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ His only Son, and in the Holy Ghost, one God, blessed for evermore; and I do acknowledge the holy scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by divine inspiration.”

In such a religious environment, Congress saw no difficulty in appropriating tax monies for the training of ministers, paying the salaries of missionaries to the Indians, or the publication of the first American Bibles. In the summer of 1787, during the very same time that the Constitution was being drafted, Congress set aside section 16 in every township for the support of avowedly Christian public schools. In addition, Congress also stipulated that section 29 in every township be set aside for the support of religion. Congressional leaders saw themselves not as secular politicians, but as moral and spiritual guides to the new nation.

When, then, was the “wall of separation” erected?

The “wall of separation” was not firmly put in place until 1947. In that year, Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, instead of going back to the Constitution, dug out a phrase from a letter written by Thomas Jefferson on January 1, 1802. For Jefferson it was a campaign promise to a selected group of political supporters. For us it has become an intellectual nightmare and a seemingly immovable plank in American jurisprudence.

For those Christians who teach in public schools of our land, the Supreme Court has effectively accomplished what Congress is expressly prohibited from doing. From 9 AM to 3 PM, Monday through Friday, we are told to ignore and deny the God who made us. In our classrooms and on the school grounds we may not talk to Him and we may not read His only infallible guide for life and behavior.

The American Civil Liberties Union is pleased.

I wonder if God is?


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Your comments are welcome!

I can’t say that I agree. I’ve been reading up a lot on this issue of secularism for the past few weeks, and a lot of articles — yours included — use many of the same facts as reports on the other front, but are held in a different light.

I do agree that church isn’t necessarily an equal entity living along the borders of state; I agree that it’s an aspect OF state, and so can’t be separated in the way many people depict it could be. However, when taking a much more down-to-earth look on this issue, it’s apparent to me that many of the restrictions on religion are not as severe as you describe.

For one, prayer barred from school? I am sure many schools would be much more lax in such a law, but even for those who are not you must admit it won’t be hurting the students much at all. School is meant to be a place to learn a variety of skills for life, and if a subject doesn’t apply to your future then the study skills and other abilities that you build while attending the classes are likely to be of some aid. (Digressed a bit) There shouldn’t be time for prayer and worship, and even if there was why couldn’t it be reserved for home or church?

I do think restricting the number of people one can have over at home for bible study is very unfair. It’s something usually done in your own time and has no negative effect on others; why should state have a say in it? I think it sets a perspective that religion is no different than a type of business, as this license to host a wider number of worshipers vaguely reminds me of licenses to run businesses. Again, I see this as unfair.

Posted by Nicholas LeVack on 11/21/2008 03:14 PM #

I agree because everything that America was built on relates to the bible, from the Pledge of Allegiance to our national currency to the Oath of Office.

Posted by Audria McManus on 09/16/2009 12:08 PM #

I have to say that I am a very devout Christian. I do believe that we should be allowed to worship, talk to God, pray, and read the Bible anytime we want to. The second amendment guarantees us the freedom of religion, so why wouldn’t we be able to act upon it at any time we wanted to. I don’t believe that I would let a teacher tell me that I am not allowed to read my bible to grown in my heavenly father or to say I couldn’t pray( to myself) in class. But that’s just my opinion.

Posted by Julie. on 03/08/2011 11:26 AM #

Everything that America was built on does not relate to the Bible. The works “under God” were added to the Pledge in the 50s and so was “In God we Trust” on coins. Many of the founding fathers were deists, meaning they believed in a creator God, but believe he never interfered after that. This nation is a nation for all religions, and if you think forcing the religion of the majority on the minority is a good thing, then I believe you are mistaken.

Posted by Bill on 05/25/2011 09:24 PM #

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Is there a connection between pagan religion and the abortion industry?

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Conceived as a sequel and update to the 1988 classic, The Massacre of Innocence, the new title, The Abortion Matrix, is entirely fitting. It not only references abortion’s specific target – the sacred matrix where human beings are formed in the womb in the very image of God, but it also implies the existence of a conspiracy, a matrix of seemingly disparate forces that are driving this holocaust.

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As the allusion to the film of over a decade ago suggests, the viewer may learn that things are not always as they appear to be. The Abortion Matrix reveals the reality of child-killing and strikes the proper moral chord to move hearts to fulfill the biblical responsibility to rescue those unjustly sentenced to death and to speak for those who cannot speak for themselves (Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9).

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Massacre of Innocence (DVD)

Exposing The Occult Roots of Abortion

This presentation looks at the spiritual roots of abortion and exposes the myths surrounding child killing. Little known historical facts about abortion and how they relate to modern feminism are presented logically and accurately. Has been effective in converting many to a pro-life position.

Massacre of Innocence goes where no pro-life presentation has gone before in “tearing the lid off abortion” to reveal the spiritual realities we must battle if we will bring an end to this crime. The presentation is absorbing, fast-paced, informative and incredibly devastating to any attempt to justify abortion.

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Amazing GraceAmazing Grace: The History and Theology of Calvinism (DVD)

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Just what is Calvinism?

Does this teaching make man a deterministic robot and God the author of sin? What about free will? If the church accepts Calvinism, won’t evangelism be stifled, perhaps even extinguished? How can we balance God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility? What are the differences between historic Calvinism and hyper-Calvinism? Why did men like Augustine, Luther, Calvin, Spurgeon, Whitefield, Edwards and a host of renowned Protestant evangelists embrace the teaching of predestination and election and deny free will theology?

This is the first video documentary that answers these and other related questions. Hosted by Eric Holmberg, this fascinating three-part, four-hour presentation is detailed enough so as to not gloss over the controversy. At the same time, it is broken up into ten “Sunday-school-sized” sections to make the rich content manageable and accessible for the average viewer.

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Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.

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This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).

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This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.

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Dr. Francis Schaeffer - A Christian Manifesto (DVD)

That Swiss Hermit Strikes Again!

Dr. Schaeffer, who was one of the most influential Christian thinkers in the twentieth century, shows that secular humanism has displaced the Judeo-Christian consensus that once defined our nation’s moral boundaries. Law, education, and medicine have all been reshaped for the worse as a consequence. America’s dominant worldview changed, Schaeffer charges, when Christians weren’t looking.

Schaeffer lists two reasons for evangelical indifference: a false concept of spirituality and fear. He calls on believers to stand against the tyranny and moral chaos that come when humanism reigns-and warns that believers may, at some point, be forced to make the hard choice between obeying God or Caesar. A Christian Manifesto is a thought-provoking and bracing Christian analysis of American culture and the obligation Christians have to engage the culture with the claims of Christ.

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The Abortion Matrix:
Defeating Child Sacrifice and the Culture of Death

is a 195-minute presentation that traces the biblical roots of child sacrifice and then delves into the social, political and cultural fall-out that this sin against God has produced. You can order this series on DVD, read the complete script and view clips on-line...
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