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The Mandate

The Five Functions of Government

By Editorial Staff
Published April 22, 2008

The preamble to the U.S. Constitution lists the five functions of government, all based on biblical principles

By Stephen K. McDowell & Mark A. Beliles

As outlined in my letter, on pages 10-11, civil government is one of the five main areas of jurisdiction to whom God gives certain responsibilities and very definite limits. This article takes a brief look at these, and highlights how they were incorporated into the U.S. Constitution. Civil government is not the most important of the five spheres, but probably has been the most ignored by modern Christians. As a result, the civil government of the United States has strayed far beyond its biblical and constitutional limitations, thus creating great injustice for many U.S. citizens. If we, the future leaders of China, study the example of early America, however, as highlighted in the following article, we can learn a great deal. – Wang Jiapu

The American Revolution was a Christian Revolution, not simply because it was led by great Christian men such as Samuel Adams, but because of the biblical worldview that united the Colonies and motivated their actions and means of resistance. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence based on Christian ideas of resistance and liberty. The Continental Congress repeatedly sought God in prayer and acknowledged Him in their proclamations and legislation. Patrick Henry urged the use of arms as a biblical third step in resistance. George Washington led the American armies urging prayer among his troops and doing so himself frequently. Washington relinquished his power as commander of the armies and promoted the drafting of a new Constitution and became the first President by godly means rather than by a coup.

The Declaration of Independence is based upon the Christian idea of man and government. In fact, it was the first national covenant in history with such a foundation. The Declaration ends with the Congressional Representatives “appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World” and acknowledging “a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence.”

After the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Samuel Adams, the father of the American Revolution, stated: “We have this day restored the Sovereign, to Whom alone men ought to be obedient. He reigns in heaven and … from the rising to the setting sun, may His Kingdom come.”

America’s founders understood that the birth of their nation marked the birth of the first Christian nation in history – Christian not because all who founded it were Christians, but because its system of government was founded thoroughly upon Christian principles. J. Wingate Thorton relates how the sixth U.S. president, John Quincy Adams, said, “The highest glory of the American revolution was this: it connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity.“1

The U.S. Supreme Court has concurred with this a number of times. For example, in 1892, it declared:

“Our laws and our institutions must necessarily be based upon and embody the teachings of the Redeemer of mankind. It is impossible that it would be otherwise; and in this sense and to this extent our civilization and our institution are emphatically Christian … this is a Christian nation.”

The chief author of the American Constitution, and justly called its “Father,” was a Christian statesman, James Madison. (He would also become the fourth U.S. president.) That the Constitution was the product of Christianity, and of its ideas of man and government, is revealed by the biblical functions of government that Madison listed in its preamble:

1. To establish justice – This is the goal of the passages in Romans 13 and 1 Peter 2:14, which say that government is to punish evildoers and protect those who do right.

2. To insure domestic tranquility – This phrase comes from the focus of prayer for government, which Paul urged in 1 Timothy 2:1-2. The New American Standard Bible says to pray for government “in order that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and dignity.”

3. To provide for the common defense – The protection of innocent human life is at the base of not only capital punishment (Genesis 9:6), but also in the provision of an army for protection from external threats.

4. To promote the general welfare – Romans 13:4 says that civil rulers are servants “to you for good.” The common good of all classes of citizens must be promoted by government passage of laws guaranteeing equal opportunity. It is not proper for government to provide money and aid to special interest groups. It is to promote, not provide, and to do so for all people in general, not for special people.

5. To secure the blessings of liberty – Blessing are a gift of one’s Creator, not a privilege granted by government. These blessings include life, liberty, and property. A biblical view of government sees that it cannot provide these, only secure them.

Besides all these goals that are biblical, the United States Constitution established all of the basic structures that a biblical framework of government should have … Although not perfect, the U.S. Constitution clearly represents the fullest expression of biblical ideas and structures of government. For this reason it has lasted for over 200 years and has been copied by many nations around the globe.

1 John Wingate Thorton, The Pulpit of the American Revolution (Boston, 1860)

From Liberating the Nations: Biblical Principles of Government, Education, Economics, and Politics, by Stephen K. McDowell and Mark A. Beliles, Providence Foundation, ©1991. Used with permission.


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Your comments are welcome!

i am very gratefull for your concern to the public remaind blessed

Posted by clement on 10/03/2008 01:19 PM #

The roles and functions of the Government has been translated in the biblical aspects that made it very easy for me to digest it to my short floor spiritual understanding.

Posted by ABIGAIL MSHANA on 02/27/2011 07:29 AM #

As a Christian who has been very concerned with not only the direction our country is headed, but with the way many vocal “Christian” leaders & groups seem bent on actively pushing the country further the same direction, I find this article very encouraging. It is a sad and disturbing state of affairs when we continue to elect politicians, regardless of political party affiliation, who then come together and vote “yes” on legislation that doesn’t clear the hurdles you just listed. One would be hard pressed to identify a single piece of legislation passed by congress & signed by the President in oh, my lifetime (46 years) that would adhere to (or at least not break) all five of these fundamental principles. What’s worse – the Supreme Court doesn’t stand up and say anything! The SCOTUS is charged with ensuring that the laws enacted by congress & the President adhere to the constitution yet they continue to ignore the constitution!
How can we, the people, take action to correct this injustice? Why do our “Christian” leaders waste time and resources supporting candidates who have a record of failure on these basic tenets?

Posted by Wilson Thomas on 10/05/2011 04:42 PM #

It’s nice to see that someone understands that our government and our country were founded on a Christian foundation and was made to find strength in the Lord.

Posted by Nicole Ann on 03/23/2012 10:43 AM #

We can spin the Constitution any way you want just like you can spin the Bible and interpret a passage “seven different ways from Sunday”. However, one only needs to look to the Declaration of Independence to help understand the intent of our founding fathers who were forming a SECULAR COUNTRY governed by a SECULAR Constitution that provided; “freedom of religion” and “freedom FROM religion”. The Declaration of Independence says; “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by “THEIR CREATOR” with certain unalienable Rights”. Our founding fathers, many who were Deists, understood the importance of NOT declaring that our country was based on one GOD of one specific religion or religious sect, hence the statement by Thomas Jeffereson which was agreed to by all the signatories, “THEIR CREATOR”. We need to honor and protect the fact that America is a SECULAR country (not a Christian nation) comprised of over 20+ major religions (and non-religions) and that each of our religions whatever it may be, belongs in our heart, our family, and our place of worship and not influence any politician or laws.

Posted by Marc Kovitz on 06/21/2012 02:25 PM #

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The Real Jesus: A Defense of the Historicity and Divinity of ChristThe Real Jesus: A Defense of the Historicity and Divinity of Christ (DVD)

Who is the Real Jesus?

Ever since the dawn of modern rationalism, skeptics have sought to use textual criticism, archeology and historical reconstructions to uncover the “historical Jesus” — a wise teacher who said many wonderful things, but fulfilled no prophecies, performed no miracles and certainly did not rise from the dead in triumph over sin.

Over the past 100 years, however, startling discoveries in biblical archeology and scholarship have all but vanquished the faulty assumptions of these doubting modernists. Regrettably, these discoveries have often been ignored by the skeptics as well as by the popular media. As a result, the liberal view still holds sway in universities and impacts the culture and even much of the church.

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Who is the dreaded beast of Revelation?

Now at last, a plausible candidate for this personification of evil incarnate has been identified (or re-identified). Ken Gentry’s insightful analysis of scripture and history is likely to revolutionize your understanding of the book of Revelation — and even more importantly — amplify and energize your entire Christian worldview!

Historical footage and other graphics are used to illustrate the lecture Dr. Gentry presented at the 1999 Ligonier Conference in Orlando, Florida. It is followed by a one-hour question and answer session addressing the key concerns and objections typically raised in response to his position. This presentation also features an introduction that touches on not only the confusion and controversy surrounding this issue — but just why it may well be one of the most significant issues facing the Church today.

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Dr. Francis Schaeffer - How Should We Then Live? (DVD)

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After 40 years of intense study and world-wide ministry, Dr. Francis Schaeffer completed his crowning work of scholarship – to present profound truths in simple film language. Dr. Schaeffer’s brilliant analysis of the past and predictions for current trends have proven so uncannily accurate that this amazing series still feels contemporary almost three decades after its initial release. Ultimately, Schaeffer concludes that man’s only hope is a return to God’s Biblical absolute, the truth revealed in Christ through the Scriptures.

Available for the first time on DVD, this documentary spectacular also includes intimate in-depth conversations with Francis and Edith Schaeffer. With the on-disc study guide, this presentation forms a unique course of comprehensive study. While this series forms an innovative analysis of the past, this outstanding work is more than history. Each episode focuses on a significant era, yet speaks clearly to 21st-century man with answers for modern problems.

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“Give me liberty or give me death!”

Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.

The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).

Welcome to the Second American Revolution!

This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.

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Sixteen Christian leaders and scholars answer some of the most common questions and misconceptions related to this volatile issue:

1. Are we under Law or under Grace?
2. Does the Old Testament Law apply today?
3. Can we legislate morality?
4. What are the biblical foundations of government?
5. Was America founded as a Christian nation?
6. What about the separation of Church and State?
7. Is neutrality a myth?
8. What about non-Christians and the Law of God?
9. Would there be “freedom” in a Christian republic?
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