By Jay Rogers
Published April 27, 2008
Is there is any suggestion that the ten horns of Daniel 7 are ten separate kings in chronological stages of growth rather than ten kings in a single national alliance?
Do these kings grow up as “horns” one at a time, or do they appear all at once?
A popular method of interpreting the “ten horns” is in an alliance of ten kingdoms rather than as ten separate rulers of the same kingdom who succeed one another. However, there is a chronological succession if we compare Daniel 7 to Revelation 17:10 — “And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.”
Now here is the related question: Are the seven kings of Revelation among the ten kings of Daniel? Or are the ten kings a different group?
Let’s start with the seven kings. John writes: “five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.” I can only conclude that what John means by this is: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. This is a literal statement.
The five Roman Emperors were Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius who each fell before Nero.
The sixth Emperor was Nero. John writes, “one is.” Nero was alive when John wrote the prophecy.
The seventh is Galba who reigned only seven months. “He must continue a short space.”
There are seven heads and ten horns in Revelation 17; there are simply ten horns in Daniel seven.
After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns…. The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise (Daniel 7:7,24).
And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. (Revelation 17:9-12).
Some preterist commentators, such as David Chilton in Paradise Restored, have said the ten horns of Revelation are the provincial Roman governors under Nero. However, I think the seven heads simply denote the first seven among the ten Roman Emperors.
First, Daniel does not speak of seven horns, but “ten horns.” Since John speaks of “seven heads and ten horns,” I conclude that the “seven” heads of Revelation are the first seven horns of the “ten” horns of Daniel.
Second, John says the eighth “is of the seven.” This is an idiom that we might have difficulty with today. Apparently, he means that the eighth was revealed to him later, but he is of the seven. He is the Emperor who “is” at the time John is writing Revelation. In other words, the eighth horn that John saw is actually the same Emperor as the sixth.
Now compare this with Daniel 7:8 — “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.”
It makes sense to say that “another little horn” was Nero because Tiberius, Claudius and Caligula did not persecute the early Christians. On the contrary, Nero was the first Emperor to speak “great things” against Christ.
Third, John writes: “And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast. These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them.”
It is easy at first glance to say, as Chilton does, that these are ten Roman governors contemporaneous with Nero. But if we say that these ten horns are the same as the ten horns of Daniel, then it is not a consistent interpretation.
The ten kings are ten consecutive Emperors, but they also symbolize the unified Imperial might of Rome. “They have received no power as yet” means that they have received no power to make war with Christ until Nero comes along. The ten horns are the ten Caesars who reigned up until the time of the destruction of Jerusalem. Even though five of the first ten are dead, in one hour they will become a kingdom, a power and a unified mind to persecute the church.
Fourth, if we take the tribulation to mean the three-and-a-half year persecution of the church (AD 64 to 67) and the three-and-a-half year siege of Jerusalem (AD 67 to 70) it makes sense for John to see a dividing line in time at the death of Nero and see in a prophetic vision a group of seven kings and then a group of ten kings. Revelation points to the time of the sixth Emperor as the time when the first generation of the church is about see great tribulation, the persecution under Nero, begin. The time of the tenth Emperor is when the Temple at Jerusalem finally destroyed. According to Kenneth Gentry:
As the Roman Civil Wars broke out in rebellion against Nero, Nero committed suicide on June 8, A.D. 68. John informs us that the seventh king was “not yet come.” That would be Galba, who assumed power upon Nero’s death in June, AD 68. But he was only to continue a “short space.” As a matter of historical fact, his reign lasted but six months — until January 15, AD 69. He was one of the quick succession of emperors in the famous era called by historians: the year of the four emperors.
In other words, if Galba was the seventh Emperor, the next three of the Daniel’s ten horns were, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian. Titus, Vespasian’s son, was the Roman general who destroyed the Temple in AD 70. The ten Roman Emperors would also be the ten horns of John’s Revelation, who “receive power as kings one hour with the beast.” The reign of these kings parallel the period of the ministry of the Messiah and of the Apostles until the destruction of Jerusalem.
Without this comparison of scripture interpreting scripture, one could conclude almost anything about the little horn — and many have drawn the most irrelevant conclusions.
If Revelation is consistent with Daniel, we see that the “sixth horn” of Revelation is the same as the “little horn” of Daniel. Nero was the sixth in succession the Emperor who “is” at the time of John’s writing.
Forerunner - Home » In The Days of These Kings ...
Your comments are welcome!
Special Two-Disc Set!
After 40 years of intense study and world-wide ministry, Dr. Francis Schaeffer completed his crowning work of scholarship – to present profound truths in simple film language. Dr. Schaeffer’s brilliant analysis of the past and predictions for current trends have proven so uncannily accurate that this amazing series still feels contemporary almost three decades after its initial release. Ultimately, Schaeffer concludes that man’s only hope is a return to God’s Biblical absolute, the truth revealed in Christ through the Scriptures.
Available for the first time on DVD, this documentary spectacular also includes intimate in-depth conversations with Francis and Edith Schaeffer. With the on-disc study guide, this presentation forms a unique course of comprehensive study. While this series forms an innovative analysis of the past, this outstanding work is more than history. Each episode focuses on a significant era, yet speaks clearly to 21st-century man with answers for modern problems.
$49.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
That Swiss Hermit Strikes Again!
Dr. Schaeffer, who was one of the most influential Christian thinkers in the twentieth century, shows that secular humanism has displaced the Judeo-Christian consensus that once defined our nation’s moral boundaries. Law, education, and medicine have all been reshaped for the worse as a consequence. America’s dominant worldview changed, Schaeffer charges, when Christians weren’t looking.
Schaeffer lists two reasons for evangelical indifference: a false concept of spirituality and fear. He calls on believers to stand against the tyranny and moral chaos that come when humanism reigns-and warns that believers may, at some point, be forced to make the hard choice between obeying God or Caesar. A Christian Manifesto is a thought-provoking and bracing Christian analysis of American culture and the obligation Christians have to engage the culture with the claims of Christ.
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
“When the lives of the unborn are snuffed out, they often feel pain, pain that is long and agonizing.” – President Ronald Reagan to National Religious Broadcasters Convention, January 1981
Ronald Reagan became convinced of this as a result of watching The Silent Scream – a movie he considered so powerful and convicting that he screened it at the White House. More recently, it was by catching just a glimpse of what this film reveals that Planned Parenthood director and abortion advocate Abby Johnson turned and became a strong advocate for the pre-born.
The modern technology of real-time ultrasound now reveals the actual responses of a 12-week old fetus to being aborted. As the unborn child attempts to escape the abortionist’s suction curette, her motions can be seen to become desperately agitated and her heart rate doubles. Her mouth opens – as if to scream – but no sound can come out. Her scream doesn’t have to remain silent, however … not if you will become her voice. This newly re-mastered version features eight language tracks and two bonus videos.
“…a high technology “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” arousing public opinion just as Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 antislavery novel ignited the abolitionist movement.” – Sen. Gordon Humphrey, Time Magazine
Languages: English, Spanish, French, South Korean, Chinese, Russian, Portuguese, Japanese
Running Time: 28 minutes
$17.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Download the Free Study Guide!
Just what is Calvinism?
Does this teaching make man a deterministic robot and God the author of sin? What about free will? If the church accepts Calvinism, won’t evangelism be stifled, perhaps even extinguished? How can we balance God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility? What are the differences between historic Calvinism and hyper-Calvinism? Why did men like Augustine, Luther, Calvin, Spurgeon, Whitefield, Edwards and a host of renowned Protestant evangelists embrace the teaching of predestination and election and deny free will theology?
This is the first video documentary that answers these and other related questions. Hosted by Eric Holmberg, this fascinating three-part, four-hour presentation is detailed enough so as to not gloss over the controversy. At the same time, it is broken up into ten “Sunday-school-sized” sections to make the rich content manageable and accessible for the average viewer.
Running Time: 257 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
“Give me liberty or give me death!”
Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.
The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).
Welcome to the Second American Revolution!
This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.
$14.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)