By Jay Rogers
Published April 27, 2008
Is there is any suggestion that the ten horns of Daniel 7 are ten separate kings in chronological stages of growth rather than ten kings in a single national alliance?
Do these kings grow up as “horns” one at a time, or do they appear all at once?
A popular method of interpreting the “ten horns” is in an alliance of ten kingdoms rather than as ten separate rulers of the same kingdom who succeed one another. However, there is a chronological succession if we compare Daniel 7 to Revelation 17:10 — “And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.”
Now here is the related question: Are the seven kings of Revelation among the ten kings of Daniel? Or are the ten kings a different group?
Let’s start with the seven kings. John writes: “five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.” I can only conclude that what John means by this is: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. This is a literal statement.
The five Roman Emperors were Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius who each fell before Nero.
The sixth Emperor was Nero. John writes, “one is.” Nero was alive when John wrote the prophecy.
The seventh is Galba who reigned only seven months. “He must continue a short space.”
There are seven heads and ten horns in Revelation 17; there are simply ten horns in Daniel seven.
After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns…. The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise (Daniel 7:7,24).
And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. (Revelation 17:9-12).
Some preterist commentators, such as David Chilton in Paradise Restored, have said the ten horns of Revelation are the provincial Roman governors under Nero. However, I think the seven heads simply denote the first seven among the ten Roman Emperors.
First, Daniel does not speak of seven horns, but “ten horns.” Since John speaks of “seven heads and ten horns,” I conclude that the “seven” heads of Revelation are the first seven horns of the “ten” horns of Daniel.
Second, John says the eighth “is of the seven.” This is an idiom that we might have difficulty with today. Apparently, he means that the eighth was revealed to him later, but he is of the seven. He is the Emperor who “is” at the time John is writing Revelation. In other words, the eighth horn that John saw is actually the same Emperor as the sixth.
Now compare this with Daniel 7:8 — “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.”
It makes sense to say that “another little horn” was Nero because Tiberius, Claudius and Caligula did not persecute the early Christians. On the contrary, Nero was the first Emperor to speak “great things” against Christ.
Third, John writes: “And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast. These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them.”
It is easy at first glance to say, as Chilton does, that these are ten Roman governors contemporaneous with Nero. But if we say that these ten horns are the same as the ten horns of Daniel, then it is not a consistent interpretation.
The ten kings are ten consecutive Emperors, but they also symbolize the unified Imperial might of Rome. “They have received no power as yet” means that they have received no power to make war with Christ until Nero comes along. The ten horns are the ten Caesars who reigned up until the time of the destruction of Jerusalem. Even though five of the first ten are dead, in one hour they will become a kingdom, a power and a unified mind to persecute the church.
Fourth, if we take the tribulation to mean the three-and-a-half year persecution of the church (AD 64 to 67) and the three-and-a-half year siege of Jerusalem (AD 67 to 70) it makes sense for John to see a dividing line in time at the death of Nero and see in a prophetic vision a group of seven kings and then a group of ten kings. Revelation points to the time of the sixth Emperor as the time when the first generation of the church is about see great tribulation, the persecution under Nero, begin. The time of the tenth Emperor is when the Temple at Jerusalem finally destroyed. According to Kenneth Gentry:
As the Roman Civil Wars broke out in rebellion against Nero, Nero committed suicide on June 8, A.D. 68. John informs us that the seventh king was “not yet come.” That would be Galba, who assumed power upon Nero’s death in June, AD 68. But he was only to continue a “short space.” As a matter of historical fact, his reign lasted but six months — until January 15, AD 69. He was one of the quick succession of emperors in the famous era called by historians: the year of the four emperors.
In other words, if Galba was the seventh Emperor, the next three of the Daniel’s ten horns were, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian. Titus, Vespasian’s son, was the Roman general who destroyed the Temple in AD 70. The ten Roman Emperors would also be the ten horns of John’s Revelation, who “receive power as kings one hour with the beast.” The reign of these kings parallel the period of the ministry of the Messiah and of the Apostles until the destruction of Jerusalem.
Without this comparison of scripture interpreting scripture, one could conclude almost anything about the little horn — and many have drawn the most irrelevant conclusions.
If Revelation is consistent with Daniel, we see that the “sixth horn” of Revelation is the same as the “little horn” of Daniel. Nero was the sixth in succession the Emperor who “is” at the time of John’s writing.
Forerunner - Home » In The Days of These Kings ...
Your comments are welcome!
“Give me liberty or give me death!”
Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.
The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).
Welcome to the Second American Revolution!
This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.
$14.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Download the free Study Guide!
Is there a connection between pagan religion and the abortion industry?
This powerful presentation traces the biblical roots of child sacrifice and then delves into the social, political and cultural fall-out that this sin against God and crime against humanity has produced in our beleaguered society.
Conceived as a sequel and update to the 1988 classic, The Massacre of Innocence, the new title, The Abortion Matrix, is entirely fitting. It not only references abortion’s specific target – the sacred matrix where human beings are formed in the womb in the very image of God, but it also implies the existence of a conspiracy, a matrix of seemingly disparate forces that are driving this holocaust.
The occult activity surrounding the abortion industry is exposed with numerous examples. But are these just aberrations, bizarre yet anomalous examples of abortionists who just happen to have ties to modern day witchcraft? Or is this representative of something deeper, more sinister and even endemic to the entire abortion movement?
As the allusion to the film of over a decade ago suggests, the viewer may learn that things are not always as they appear to be. The Abortion Matrix reveals the reality of child-killing and strikes the proper moral chord to move hearts to fulfill the biblical responsibility to rescue those unjustly sentenced to death and to speak for those who cannot speak for themselves (Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9).
Speakers include: George Grant, Peter Hammond, RC Sproul Jr., Paul Jehle, Lou Engle, Rusty Thomas, Flip Benham, Janet Porter and many more.
Ten parts, over three hours of instruction!
Running Time: 195 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Download the Free Study Guide!
God’s Law and Society powerfully presents a comprehensive worldview based upon the ethical system found in the Law of God.
Speakers include: R.J. Rushdoony, George Grant, Howard Phillips, R.C. Sproul Jr., Ken Gentry, Gary DeMar, Jay Grimstead, Steven Schlissel, Andrew Sandlin, Eric Holmberg, and more!
Sixteen Christian leaders and scholars answer some of the most common questions and misconceptions related to this volatile issue:
1. Are we under Law or under Grace?
2. Does the Old Testament Law apply today?
3. Can we legislate morality?
4. What are the biblical foundations of government?
5. Was America founded as a Christian nation?
6. What about the separation of Church and State?
7. Is neutrality a myth?
8. What about non-Christians and the Law of God?
9. Would there be “freedom” in a Christian republic?
10. What would a “Christian America” look like?
Perfect for group instruction as well as personal Bible study.
Ten parts, over four hours of instruction!
Running Time: 240 minutes
Watch over 60 on-line video interviews from God’s Law and Society.
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Exposes the Dangers of Abortion to Women!
These shocking eyewitness accounts expose the dangers of abortion not only to unborn children, but to the health and lives women as well. An antidote to the smokescreens of the liberal media, these short clips show what really happens in and around abortion clinics.
Although the content is emotionally gut-wrenching, these videos have been used in church seminars and small groups to educate Christians on the abortion issue and to lead people toward a pro-life position. Contains 2 hours and 40 minutes of materials that can be shown separately.
Watch these pro-life videos on-line.
“These videos helped change my mind from pro-choice to pro-life. Your videos are what did it for me. I will be walking in next year’s March For Life in San Francisco.” — A. Jackson, California
“I was going to have an abortion until I saw your video. Praise Jesus!”
— M. Drew, YouTube Commenter
$4.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Who is the Real Jesus?
Ever since the dawn of modern rationalism, skeptics have sought to use textual criticism, archeology and historical reconstructions to uncover the “historical Jesus” — a wise teacher who said many wonderful things, but fulfilled no prophecies, performed no miracles and certainly did not rise from the dead in triumph over sin.
Over the past 100 years, however, startling discoveries in biblical archeology and scholarship have all but vanquished the faulty assumptions of these doubting modernists. Regrettably, these discoveries have often been ignored by the skeptics as well as by the popular media. As a result, the liberal view still holds sway in universities and impacts the culture and even much of the church.
The Real Jesus explodes the myths of these critics and the movies, books and television programs that have popularized their views. Presented in ten parts — perfect for individual, family and classroom study — viewers will be challenged to go deeper in their knowledge of Christ in order to be able to defend their faith and present the truth to a skeptical modern world – that the Jesus of the Gospels is the Jesus of history — “the same yesterday, today and forever” (Hebrews 13:8). He is the real Jesus.
Speakers include: George Grant, Ted Baehr, Stephen Mansfield, Raymond Ortlund, Phil Kayser, David Lutzweiler, Jay Grimstead, J.P. Holding, and Eric Holmberg.
Ten parts, over two hours of instruction!
Running Time: 130 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)