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Notes on Daniel: Who was the first Roman “king”?

By Jay Rogers
Published September 21, 2019

A common objection to the line of Roman kings beginning with Julius Caesar is that he ruled as a dictator only for a short period of time and was never proclaimed an emperor. Instead most modern historians follow the line that begins with Augustus, when the Roman Empire as a system of government emerged. Prior to that time, the Roman Republic was ruled by a Senate and then a Triumvirate. Several reasons suggest why the first horn of the beast – that is, the first king of Daniel 7:7,24 and Revelation 17:9-12 – is Julius Caesar and not Augustus Caesar.


In the Days of These Kings (Book)

Perfect-bound Paperback — 740 pages

The Book of Daniel in Preterist Perspective

“And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever” (Daniel 2:44).

The overarching message of Daniel is that Jesus the Messiah is even now ruling over the nations. He is the King of kings. Daniel tells us that Messiah’s kingdom will advance in the whole world from “generation to generation” (Daniel 4:4,34). Christ’s dominion is “given to the people of the saints of the most High” (Daniel 7:22). Our purpose then is to see “all people, nations, and languages … serve and obey him” (Daniel 7:14,27).

This comprehensive work offers a fascinating look at the book of Daniel in preterist perspective. Great attention is paid to the writings of ancient and modern historians and scholars to connect the dots and demonstrate the continuity of Daniel’s prophecy with all of Scripture.

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  1. Whether Julius Caesar was a true “emperor” of Rome or merely a military dictator is immaterial to the prophecy. The word “king” is used throughout the Book of Daniel and can mean either a single king or a line of kings.
  2. Julius Caesar was the first Roman “king” to make an alliance with Judea in 47 BC. The Jews received benefits from Rome due to the troop support they gave Caesar during the Battle of the Nile. From a Jewish perspective, the first Roman “king” to have dominion in Judea was Pompey in 63 BC, who conquered the city of Jerusalem and desecrated the Temple. Pompey came at a time when the First Triumvirate was about to be formed. Julius Caesar was part of the First Triumvirate from almost the beginning of Rome’s occupation of Judea.
  3. Julius Caesar conquered lands to the north of Rome for the next 14 years. He arrived for the civil war with Pompey in regions close to Judea from 49 to 47 BC. Caesar sent his Jewish emissary Aristobulus to Judea in the spring of that year. Pompey responded by having Aristobulus poisoned and enlisted the aid of the Egyptian pharaoh, Ptolemy XIII, in preparation for a civil war with Caesar.
  4. Julius Caesar was made dictator for the first time on September 24th, 49 BC. From that date, the Romans and kingdoms in the east, including Macedonia and Syria, began their first “indiction.” An indiction was a fiscal period of 15 years used as a means of dating events and transactions in the Roman Empire. Indictions of 15 years were ever since then tied to the reigns of the Roman emperors.
  5. Flavius Josephus, Suetonius, Theophilus of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria and Cassius Dio number the line of the “Twelve Caesars” from Julius to Domitian, while Tacitus counts from Augustus onward. Being a Jew and a contemporary of Josephus, the Apostle John who wrote Revelation would have understood the line of Roman kings to begin with Julius Caesar.
  6. It is a fact of history that the Jews, after their alliance with Julius Caesar in 47 BC, thought of him as their king. On the day after he assumed his fifth and last consulship in 45 BC, Julius Caesar, like the Persian kings Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes before him, decreed that the Jews should rebuild the walls around Jerusalem that had been destroyed by Pompey in 63 BC. He also gave the Jews tax relief and decreed that they should be governed according to their own laws.
  7. Cicero, Plutarch, Suetonius and Cassius Dio refer to a proposed law in the Roman Senate in 44 BC that would have made Caesar a king since most of the nations in the known world were under Roman rule. Some thought that the title of “emperor” or “dictator” sounded more agreeable, since Caesar did not like (or at least pretended not to like) being called a “king.”
  8. While it is true that Julius Caesar did not rule as the dictator of Rome for very long, he was the sole dictator from 48 to 44 BC. Brevity is no reason to discount Caesar as a Roman “king.” If so, we might also have to discount Gaius Caligula since he reigned for only four years from AD 37 to 41.
  9. Julius was the first in the dynasty of Caesars that would become known as the Roman emperors. Julius officially adopted his grand-nephew Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar, naming him as his heir in the few last months of his life.
  10. Caesar is called a “king” in John 19:15 and Acts 17:7.

Statue of Julius Caesar by Sébastien Slodtz, Louvre Museum

In early 46 BC, Julius Caesar, having conquered Ptolemy XIII in Egypt, marched on to Pontus in Asia Minor and defeated Pharnaces in one battle. He sent a letter to Rome with three words, “Veni. Vidi. Vici.” – “I came. I saw. I conquered.”

On his way to Asia Minor, he encamped with his troops in Judea. He recognized John Hyrcanus II as High Priest and decreed that his descendants would retain the priesthood and be exempt from taxes.

Caesar made Antipater I the Idumean governor of Judea. Antipater then made Phasaclus, his oldest son, the governor of Jerusalem and Herod the Great, his second oldest son, the governor of Galilee.


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A Revival Account: Asbury 1970 (DVD)

What is true Revival and Spiritual Awakening?

Discover the answer in this eyewitness account by Dennis Kinlaw, President of Asbury College, Wilmore, Kentucky, who recounts the story of a visitation of the Holy Spirit in 1970. This is the presentation that has continued to spark the flames of Revival in the hearts of people around the world. Contains eyewitness footage from the Revival at Asbury College in 1970 in Wilmore, Kentucky.

Certain to challenge you to greater holiness and a deeper commitment to full-scale revival. Original news and private footage has been included. If you are a student who longs to see a spiritual awakening at your school, you must see this video!

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Running Time: 40 minutes

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The Real Jesus: A Defense of the Historicity and Divinity of ChristThe Real Jesus: A Defense of the Historicity and Divinity of Christ (DVD)

Who is the Real Jesus?

Ever since the dawn of modern rationalism, skeptics have sought to use textual criticism, archeology and historical reconstructions to uncover the “historical Jesus” — a wise teacher who said many wonderful things, but fulfilled no prophecies, performed no miracles and certainly did not rise from the dead in triumph over sin.

Over the past 100 years, however, startling discoveries in biblical archeology and scholarship have all but vanquished the faulty assumptions of these doubting modernists. Regrettably, these discoveries have often been ignored by the skeptics as well as by the popular media. As a result, the liberal view still holds sway in universities and impacts the culture and even much of the church.

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Freedom: The Model of Christian Liberty (DVD)

“Give me liberty or give me death!”

Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.

The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).

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This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.

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The United States of America 2.0: The Great Reset (Book)

High Quality Paperback — 40 pages of dynamite!

Revival, Resistance, Reformation, Revolution
An Introduction to the Doctrines of Interposition and Nullification

In 1776, a short time after the Declaration of Independence was adopted, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin were assigned to design an official seal for the United States of America. Their proposed motto was Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God. America owes its existence to centuries of Christian political philosophy. Our nation provided a model for liberty copied by nations the world over.

By the 21st century, we need a “Puritan Storm” to sweep away the Hegelian notion that the state is “God walking on earth.” We need revival and reformation in full force to vanquish the problems that plague us as a nation — from government controlled healthcare — to abortion on demand — to same sex “marriage.” This booklet gives a primer on our founders’ Christian idea of government and examines how the doctrine of nullification was woven into the Constitution as a safeguard against federal tyranny. It concludes with the history and theology of civil resistance. A Second American Revolution is coming with the Word of God growing mightily and prevailing! (Acts 19:20).

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Martin Luther: Digitally Remastered 1953 Classic (DVD)

“Here I stand … I can do no other!”

With these immortal words, an unknown German monk sparked a spiritual revolution that changed the world.

The dramatic classic film of Martin Luther’s life was released in theaters worldwide in the 1950s and was nominated for two Oscars. A magnificent depiction of Luther and the forces at work in the surrounding society that resulted in his historic reform efforts, this film traces Luther’s life from a guilt-burdened monk to his eventual break with the Roman Catholic Church.

Running time: 105 minutes

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