Jay Rogers
Director:
Jay Rogers

Recent Posts

The Forerunner

Notes on Daniel: Who was the first Roman “king”?

By Jay Rogers
Published September 21, 2019

A common objection to the line of Roman kings beginning with Julius Caesar is that he ruled as a dictator only for a short period of time and was never proclaimed an emperor. Instead most modern historians follow the line that begins with Augustus, when the Roman Empire as a system of government emerged. Prior to that time, the Roman Republic was ruled by a Senate and then a Triumvirate. Several reasons suggest why the first horn of the beast – that is, the first king of Daniel 7:7,24 and Revelation 17:9-12 – is Julius Caesar and not Augustus Caesar.


In the Days of These Kings (Book)

Perfect-bound Paperback — 740 pages

The Book of Daniel in Preterist Perspective

“And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever” (Daniel 2:44).

The overarching message of Daniel is that Jesus the Messiah is even now ruling over the nations. He is the King of kings. Daniel tells us that Messiah’s kingdom will advance in the whole world from “generation to generation” (Daniel 4:4,34). Christ’s dominion is “given to the people of the saints of the most High” (Daniel 7:22). Our purpose then is to see “all people, nations, and languages … serve and obey him” (Daniel 7:14,27).

This comprehensive work offers a fascinating look at the book of Daniel in preterist perspective. Great attention is paid to the writings of ancient and modern historians and scholars to connect the dots and demonstrate the continuity of Daniel’s prophecy with all of Scripture.

Discounts
(We accept PayPal and all major credit cards.)

Click here for more information


  1. Whether Julius Caesar was a true “emperor” of Rome or merely a military dictator is immaterial to the prophecy. The word “king” is used throughout the Book of Daniel and can mean either a single king or a line of kings.
  2. Julius Caesar was the first Roman “king” to make an alliance with Judea in 47 BC. The Jews received benefits from Rome due to the troop support they gave Caesar during the Battle of the Nile. From a Jewish perspective, the first Roman “king” to have dominion in Judea was Pompey in 63 BC, who conquered the city of Jerusalem and desecrated the Temple. Pompey came at a time when the First Triumvirate was about to be formed. Julius Caesar was part of the First Triumvirate from almost the beginning of Rome’s occupation of Judea.
  3. Julius Caesar conquered lands to the north of Rome for the next 14 years. He arrived for the civil war with Pompey in regions close to Judea from 49 to 47 BC. Caesar sent his Jewish emissary Aristobulus to Judea in the spring of that year. Pompey responded by having Aristobulus poisoned and enlisted the aid of the Egyptian pharaoh, Ptolemy XIII, in preparation for a civil war with Caesar.
  4. Julius Caesar was made dictator for the first time on September 24th, 49 BC. From that date, the Romans and kingdoms in the east, including Macedonia and Syria, began their first “indiction.” An indiction was a fiscal period of 15 years used as a means of dating events and transactions in the Roman Empire. Indictions of 15 years were ever since then tied to the reigns of the Roman emperors.
  5. Flavius Josephus, Suetonius, Theophilus of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria and Cassius Dio number the line of the “Twelve Caesars” from Julius to Domitian, while Tacitus counts from Augustus onward. Being a Jew and a contemporary of Josephus, the Apostle John who wrote Revelation would have understood the line of Roman kings to begin with Julius Caesar.
  6. It is a fact of history that the Jews, after their alliance with Julius Caesar in 47 BC, thought of him as their king. On the day after he assumed his fifth and last consulship in 45 BC, Julius Caesar, like the Persian kings Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes before him, decreed that the Jews should rebuild the walls around Jerusalem that had been destroyed by Pompey in 63 BC. He also gave the Jews tax relief and decreed that they should be governed according to their own laws.
  7. Cicero, Plutarch, Suetonius and Cassius Dio refer to a proposed law in the Roman Senate in 44 BC that would have made Caesar a king since most of the nations in the known world were under Roman rule. Some thought that the title of “emperor” or “dictator” sounded more agreeable, since Caesar did not like (or at least pretended not to like) being called a “king.”
  8. While it is true that Julius Caesar did not rule as the dictator of Rome for very long, he was the sole dictator from 48 to 44 BC. Brevity is no reason to discount Caesar as a Roman “king.” If so, we might also have to discount Gaius Caligula since he reigned for only four years from AD 37 to 41.
  9. Julius was the first in the dynasty of Caesars that would become known as the Roman emperors. Julius officially adopted his grand-nephew Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar, naming him as his heir in the few last months of his life.
  10. Caesar is called a “king” in John 19:15 and Acts 17:7.

Statue of Julius Caesar by Sébastien Slodtz, Louvre Museum

In early 46 BC, Julius Caesar, having conquered Ptolemy XIII in Egypt, marched on to Pontus in Asia Minor and defeated Pharnaces in one battle. He sent a letter to Rome with three words, “Veni. Vidi. Vici.” – “I came. I saw. I conquered.”

On his way to Asia Minor, he encamped with his troops in Judea. He recognized John Hyrcanus II as High Priest and decreed that his descendants would retain the priesthood and be exempt from taxes.

Caesar made Antipater I the Idumean governor of Judea. Antipater then made Phasaclus, his oldest son, the governor of Jerusalem and Herod the Great, his second oldest son, the governor of Galilee.


Forerunner - Home » In The Days of These Kings ...

Your comments are welcome!

Textile Help

Dr. Francis Schaeffer - A Christian Manifesto (DVD)

That Swiss Hermit Strikes Again!

Dr. Schaeffer, who was one of the most influential Christian thinkers in the twentieth century, shows that secular humanism has displaced the Judeo-Christian consensus that once defined our nation’s moral boundaries. Law, education, and medicine have all been reshaped for the worse as a consequence. America’s dominant worldview changed, Schaeffer charges, when Christians weren’t looking.

Schaeffer lists two reasons for evangelical indifference: a false concept of spirituality and fear. He calls on believers to stand against the tyranny and moral chaos that come when humanism reigns-and warns that believers may, at some point, be forced to make the hard choice between obeying God or Caesar. A Christian Manifesto is a thought-provoking and bracing Christian analysis of American culture and the obligation Christians have to engage the culture with the claims of Christ.

Special discount price:
(We accept PayPal and all major credit cards.)

Click here for more information


Frank Schaeffer Will You Please Shut Up! (Book)

High Quality Paperback — 200 pages

A Reasonable Response to Christian Postmodernism

Includes a response to the book Christian Jihad by Colonel V. Doner

The title of this book is a misnomer. In reality, I am not trying to get anyone to shut up, but rather to provoke a discussion. This book is a warning about the philosophy of “Christian postmodernism” and the threat that it poses not only to Christian orthodoxy, but to the peace and prosperity our culture as well. The purpose is to equip the reader with some basic principles that can be used to refute their arguments.

Part 1 is a response to some of the recent writings by Frank Schaeffer, the son of the late Francis Schaeffer. This was originally written as a defense against Frank’s attacks on pro-life street activism – a movement that his father helped bring into being through his books, A Christian Manifesto, How Should We Then Live? and Whatever Happened to the Human Race? These works have impacted literally hundreds of thousands of Christian activists.

Part 2 is a response to Colonel Doner and his book, Christian Jihad: Neo-Fundamentalists and the Polarization of America. Doner was one of the key architects of the Christian Right that emerged in the 1980s, who now represents the disillusionment and defection many Christian activists experienced in the 1990s and 2000s. There is still great hope for America to be reformed according to biblical principles. As a new generation is emerging, it is important to recognize the mistakes that Christian activists have made in the past even while holding to a vision for the future.

Special discount price:
(We accept PayPal and all major credit cards.)

Click here for more information


The Abortion Matrix: Defeating Child Sacrifice and the Culture of Death (DVD)

Download the free Study Guide!

Is there a connection between pagan religion and the abortion industry?

This powerful presentation traces the biblical roots of child sacrifice and then delves into the social, political and cultural fall-out that this sin against God and crime against humanity has produced in our beleaguered society.

Conceived as a sequel and update to the 1988 classic, The Massacre of Innocence, the new title, The Abortion Matrix, is entirely fitting. It not only references abortion’s specific target – the sacred matrix where human beings are formed in the womb in the very image of God, but it also implies the existence of a conspiracy, a matrix of seemingly disparate forces that are driving this holocaust.

The occult activity surrounding the abortion industry is exposed with numerous examples. But are these just aberrations, bizarre yet anomalous examples of abortionists who just happen to have ties to modern day witchcraft? Or is this representative of something deeper, more sinister and even endemic to the entire abortion movement?

As the allusion to the film of over a decade ago suggests, the viewer may learn that things are not always as they appear to be. The Abortion Matrix reveals the reality of child-killing and strikes the proper moral chord to move hearts to fulfill the biblical responsibility to rescue those unjustly sentenced to death and to speak for those who cannot speak for themselves (Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9).

Speakers include: George Grant, Peter Hammond, RC Sproul Jr., Paul Jehle, Lou Engle, Rusty Thomas, Flip Benham, Janet Porter and many more.

Ten parts, over three hours of instruction!

Running Time: 195 minutes

Special discount prices:
(We accept PayPal and all major credit cards.)

Click here for more information


Why Creeds and Confessions? (Book)

High Quality Paperback — 219 pages

Foundations in Biblical Orthodoxy

Driving down a country road sometime, you might see a church with a sign proudly proclaiming: “No book but the Bible — No creed but Christ.” The problem with this statement is that the word creed (from the Latin: credo) simply means “belief.” All Christians have beliefs, regardless of whether they are written.

Yet a single book containing the actual texts of the most important creeds of the early Church will not often be found. Out of the multitude of works on the evangelical Christian book market today, those dealing with the creeds of the Church are scarce.

Why Creeds and Confessions? provides a foundation of biblical orthodoxy as a defense against the false and truly heretical doctrines advanced by the spirit of this age.

Special discount price:
(We accept PayPal and all major credit cards.)

Click here for more information


Abortion Clinic 911 Calls (DVD)

Exposes the Dangers of Abortion to Women!

These shocking eyewitness accounts expose the dangers of abortion not only to unborn children, but to the health and lives women as well. An antidote to the smokescreens of the liberal media, these short clips show what really happens in and around abortion clinics.

Although the content is emotionally gut-wrenching, these videos have been used in church seminars and small groups to educate Christians on the abortion issue and to lead people toward a pro-life position. Contains 2 hours and 40 minutes of materials that can be shown separately.

Watch these pro-life videos on-line.

“These videos helped change my mind from pro-choice to pro-life. Your videos are what did it for me. I will be walking in next year’s March For Life in San Francisco.” — A. Jackson, California

“I was going to have an abortion until I saw your video. Praise Jesus!”
— M. Drew, YouTube Commenter

Special discount price:
(We accept PayPal and all major credit cards.)

Click here for more information

Share |


RSS
Subscribe to
The Forerunner

Have The Forerunner blog sent straight to your inbox!

Enter your email address:

YouTube
The Forerunner Channel on YouTube

Featured Product
If you like the articles on this website, you may also be interested in:

Featured Articles

Live Seminar!

Real Jesus
The Abortion Matrix DVD: Update

The Abortion Matrix:
Defeating Child Sacrifice and the Culture of Death

is a 195-minute presentation that traces the biblical roots of child sacrifice and then delves into the social, political and cultural fall-out that this sin against God has produced. You can order this series on DVD, read the complete script and view clips on-line...
continued ...


View My Stats