Although not everyone can be a Greek and Latin scholar, every Christian who can read well should be able to do the following:
- Know the Greek alphabet
- Read Greek phonetically by sight
- Use the Strong’s Concordance and Lexicon in Bible study
- Use an interlinear Greek New Testament
All these resources are on-line so there is no excuse for not using them. Even a cursory knowledge of Koine Greek is extremely useful for Bible study.
Latin is also useful for studying theology. If you have a good knowledge of the English language and even a cursory knowledge of one or two romance languages, such as Spanish or French, then you already know a lot of Latin. While it just takes a little practice, you can learn to read a lot of Latin just from the root words you already know from being an English speaker. Where you will be deficient is Latin grammar and the ability to construct a sentence. But you should be able to decifer some Latin even with a basic vocabulary.
For instance, if you don’t know Latin, can you guess at the meanings of several words in the Latin version of Irenaeus’ Against Heresies?
Neque enim ante multum temporis visum est, sed pene sub nostro saeculo, ad finem Domitiani imperii.
The proper noun here, Domitiani is the Emperor Domitian. Other words should be instantly recognizable as the prefixes and roots of many English words.
ante – “before”
multum – “many,” “much,” “multi”
temporis – “time” (temporal, temporary)
visum – “see” (visual, vision)
sub – “under”
ad – “toward”
finem – “end” (final, finish)
imperii – “reign” (emperor, empire, imperial)
Using the English words before, much, time, see, under, toward, end, reign and Domitian, can you make a guess as to what the translation is?
Most theology up until about 300 years ago was written in Latin and many theological works of just 100 years ago, such as Systematic Theology by Charles Hodge, quote directly from Latin and Greek without translation. These theologians assumed the reader could decifer a few short quotations.
In fact, “literacy” in past centuries meant you could read in different languages. In Harvard’s founding documents, the Puritans wrote: “One of the next things we longed for and looked after was to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity: dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches, when our present ministers shall lie in the dust.” The entrance examination to most colleges included a portion that needed to be written in Latin and in Greek. The Puritans who were to be trained for the ministry were expected to be proficient in these languages by the age of 13. Certainly, we can accomplish a fraction of the intellectual achievement that our forefathers thought of as common knowledge.
I am not a biblical language scholar and I’ve never studied these languages in depth, but I realize it is important to know some Greek and Latin to understand some major issues in theology. As an example, consider the following question:
When was the book of Revelation written?
The vast majority of scholars have held that Revelation was written toward the end of the reign of Domitian around 96 AD. This is based on one paragraph from Irenaeus.
Irenaeus (c. AD 120-200) was bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, which is now Lyons, France. His writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology. He was a disciple of Polycarp, who himself was a disciple of the Apostle John.
Irenaeus is thought to have been a Greek from Polycarp’s hometown of Smyrna in Asia Minor, now Izmir, Turkey. The author of five books, Against Heresies, this second century apologist was a champion of orthodoxy and documents the reception of the New Testament books through the Church Fathers who bridged the time between the Apostles and Irenaeus day.
Here is the English translation of Irenaeus:
We will not, however, incur the risk of pronouncing positively as to the name of Antichrist; for if it were necessary that his name should be distinctly revealed in this present time, it would have been announced by him who beheld the apocalyptic vision. For [it or he] was seen not very long time since, but almost in our generation, towards the end of Domitian’s reign” (Irenaeus, Adversus haereses 5.30.3).
In Greek, Irenaeus writes literally: “Not therefore before long time that was seen …”
The phrase “that was seen” comes from a verb in Greek. It can mean “he/she/it was seen” – and it can refer either to the Apostle John or the vision described in the book of Revelation. However, if we look at the context of what is being discussed, Irenaeus is saying that if John knew who the identity of the Beast was, he didn’t communicate it to anyone.
Irenaeus writes elsewhere that he had known some Church Fathers, such as Papias and Polycarp, who had seen and heard John preach. If John knew the identity of the Beast of Revelation, he didn’t tell any of them. Therefore, it was John “that was seen not very long time since” in the last years of Domitian’s reign, not the book Revelation (see John 21:20-25).
The assumption that Irenaeus is decribing the date of Revelation’s writing can be traced back to Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History. In speaking of the persecution under the Roman emperor Domitian, Eusebius states:
In this persecution, it is handed down by tradition, that the apostle John, who was yet living, in consequence of his testimony to the divine word, was condemned to dwell on the island of Patmos. Irenaeus, indeed, in his fifth book against the heresies, where he speaks of the calculation formed on the epithet of Antichrist, in the above mentioned revelation of John, speaks in the following manner respecting him. “We will not, however, incur the risk of pronouncing positively as to the name of Antichrist; for if it were necessary that his name should be distinctly revealed in this present time, it would have been announced by him who beheld the apocalyptic vision. For that was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, towards the end of Domitian’s reign” (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.18).
Note that Eusebius assumes “that was seen” in Irenaeus’ statement refers to “the Revelation,” and not to “John.” On this basis, Eusebius places the writing of Revelation during the time of Domitian. This assumption has been repeated by thousands of other writers. Note also that all the existing copies of Irenaeus are in Latin, except for these fragments of the original Greek quoted in Eusebius and elsewhere. The ambiguous subtlety of the Greek version is not as clear in the Latin translation. Even though Eusebius was writing in Greek, he still interpreted “that was seen” incorrectly. Eusebius’ assumption has ever since obstructed a clear understanding of the book of Revelation. Without this error, we can interpret Revelation to apply to events from 64 to 70 AD (the Great Tribulation) because we can conclude from other evidence that it was written in the reign of Caesar Nero, in the same time period as most of the New Testament books.
Now with the Internet, there are literally hundreds of articles explaining the issue of Revelation’s dating. The layman no longer needs to rely on an expert or a Bible commentary to tell him when the book of Revelation was written. He doesn’t have to own the expensive multi-volume, Ante-Nicene Fathers by Phillip Schaff to read Irenaeus. He can go directly to the source for free.
By far, my favorite resource for biblical and patristic texts on-line is:
It takes a little while to get used to the navigation, but I find myself going back to this website again and again.
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Just what is Calvinism?
Does this teaching make man a deterministic robot and God the author of sin? What about free will? If the church accepts Calvinism, won’t evangelism be stifled, perhaps even extinguished? How can we balance God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility? What are the differences between historic Calvinism and hyper-Calvinism? Why did men like Augustine, Luther, Calvin, Spurgeon, Whitefield, Edwards and a host of renowned Protestant evangelists embrace the teaching of predestination and election and deny free will theology?
This is the first video documentary that answers these and other related questions. Hosted by Eric Holmberg, this fascinating three-part, four-hour presentation is detailed enough so as to not gloss over the controversy. At the same time, it is broken up into ten “Sunday-school-sized” sections to make the rich content manageable and accessible for the average viewer.
Running Time: 257 minutes
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God’s Law and Society powerfully presents a comprehensive worldview based upon the ethical system found in the Law of God.
Speakers include: R.J. Rushdoony, George Grant, Howard Phillips, R.C. Sproul Jr., Ken Gentry, Gary DeMar, Jay Grimstead, Steven Schlissel, Andrew Sandlin, Eric Holmberg, and more!
Sixteen Christian leaders and scholars answer some of the most common questions and misconceptions related to this volatile issue:
1. Are we under Law or under Grace?
2. Does the Old Testament Law apply today?
3. Can we legislate morality?
4. What are the biblical foundations of government?
5. Was America founded as a Christian nation?
6. What about the separation of Church and State?
7. Is neutrality a myth?
8. What about non-Christians and the Law of God?
9. Would there be “freedom” in a Christian republic?
10. What would a “Christian America” look like?
Perfect for group instruction as well as personal Bible study.
Ten parts, over four hours of instruction!
Running Time: 240 minutes
Watch over 60 on-line video interviews from God’s Law and Society.
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Foundations in Biblical Eschatology
By Jay Rogers, Larry Waugh, Rodney Stortz, Joseph Meiring. High quality paperback, 167 pages.
All Christians believe that their great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, will one day return. Although we cannot know the exact time of His return, what exactly did Jesus mean when he spoke of the signs of His coming (Mat. 24)? How are we to interpret the prophecies in Isaiah regarding the time when “the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea” (Isa. 11:19)? Should we expect a time of great tribulation and apostasy or revival and reformation before the Lord returns? Is the devil bound now, and are the saints reigning with Christ? Did you know that there are four hermeneutical approaches to the book of Daniel and Revelation?
These and many more questions are dealt with by four authors as they present the four views on the millennium. Each view is then critiqued by the other three authors.
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“Give me liberty or give me death!”
Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.
The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).
Welcome to the Second American Revolution!
This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.
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Who is the dreaded beast of Revelation?
Now at last, a plausible candidate for this personification of evil incarnate has been identified (or re-identified). Ken Gentry’s insightful analysis of scripture and history is likely to revolutionize your understanding of the book of Revelation — and even more importantly — amplify and energize your entire Christian worldview!
Historical footage and other graphics are used to illustrate the lecture Dr. Gentry presented at the 1999 Ligonier Conference in Orlando, Florida. It is followed by a one-hour question and answer session addressing the key concerns and objections typically raised in response to his position. This presentation also features an introduction that touches on not only the confusion and controversy surrounding this issue — but just why it may well be one of the most significant issues facing the Church today.
Ideal for group meetings, personal Bible study — for anyone who wants to understand the historical context of John’s famous letter “… to the seven churches which are in Asia.” (Revelation 1:4)
Running Time: 145 minutes
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