Years ago, I noted a problem with simultaneously holding to the inerrancy of scripture and the Reformed doctrine of sola scriptura. Since the original manuscripts of the Bible contain no “table of contents,” how can we can be sure that all the right books were included or excluded? Jesus validated all the books of the Old Testament, but what about the books written after He lived?
How do we know if the so-called “disputed books,” such as, 2 Peter, James, 2 John, 3 John and Jude are authentic?
I’ve asked this question of a few theologians, including two who worked on the council that drafted the Chicago Statement of Biblical Inerrancy. The answer was always unsatisfying to the effect that given the evidence, we just have to make a judgment call.
I therefore concluded that the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches must have been right when they taught that the Church Fathers had the authority to canonize the Bible and had been infallible in their ability to do so.
This of course flies in the face of the Reformed principle of “scripture interprets scripture.” If we hold to sola scriptura, then how can we even talk about a canonization process? The result of that journey of thought is an article entitled: Protestantism: Both Orthodox and Catholic! I still think the article has its merits, although I no longer believe that the Church Fathers canonized the Bible.
So the question is, “Who canonized the New Testament?”
At the time that I was writing my article, Debunking the Myths of The Da Vinci Code, I discovered that none of the church fathers ever spoke of the canon as something that was in the process of being recognized, but all assumed that the New Testament books they quoted were scripture. Even Clement of Rome gives these books this level of scriptural authority and at a very early date – by 96 A.D.
I discovered that the canon is self-authenticating. This was a big surprise to me, because I had never heard this taught. However, I believe this view is irrefutable. There are reasons why certain things are mentioned in scripture while other things are not mentioned. There is a reason we are given four Gospels from which to complete a picture and not just one. If we understand the relationship between the parts within the historical context, then the self-authenticating nature of scripture becomes apparent.
You may already know that horror fiction writer Anne Rice’s conversion came only after she realized that none of the books of the New Testament mention the destruction of the Temple. Therefore, none of these books could have been written after the fact.
The liberal idea that these books were written after 70 A.D. is ludicrous. Liberal theologians often claim that the three Gospel writers forged an ad hoc prophecy in the Mount Olivet Discourse. In addition, John prophesies the destruction of the Temple in Revelation and several other New Testament writers allude to the end of Temple worship. According to the liberals, these “prophecies” were written after the fact. But they ignore that fact that there is no New Testament writer who mentions the prophecy’s fulfillment. It just doesn’t make any sense. It is not mentioned anywhere in the New Testament writings.
On the other hand, post-70 A.D. books such as Barnabas do mention the Temple’s destruction — the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy.
Moreover, I will also tell you concerning the temple, how the wretched [Jews], wandering in error, trusted not in God Himself, but in the temple, as being the house of God. For almost after the manner of the Gentiles they worshipped Him in the temple. But learn how the Lord speaks, when abolishing it: “Who hath meted out heaven with a span, and the earth with his palm? Have not I?” “Thus saith the Lord, Heaven is My throne, and the earth My footstool: what kind of house will ye build to Me, or what is the place of My rest?” Ye perceive that their hope is vain. Moreover, He again says, “Behold, they who have cast down this temple, even they shall build it up again.” It has so happened. For through their going to war, it was destroyed by their enemies; and now: they, as the servants of their enemies, shall rebuild it. Again, it was revealed that the city and the temple and the people of Israel were to be given up. For the Scripture saith, “And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the Lord will deliver up the sheep of His pasture, and their sheep-fold and tower, to destruction.” And it so happened as the Lord had spoken (Barnabas 16:3-4).
This passage clearly places the composition of the Epistle of Barnabas after the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70. The Epistle of Barnabas never enjoyed canonical authority for this reason.
So we have that dividing line of 70 A.D. (I’d argue for 67 A.D.) as the cut-off date for all books in the canon with the slightest possible exception of John’s Gospel (which does not contain the destruction of the Temple prophecy) and his three Epistles.
Then I stumbled on the works of Ernest L. Martin and others who claim that the authority of the canon is implicit in the text itself, that is Jesus canonized the Old Testament in Luke chapter 24. In fact, that’s the only passage in the entire Bible in which the TANAK (the Hebrew Old Testament: the Law, the Prophets and the Writings) is referred to as “the scriptures.” Likewise, the entire New Testament was self-consciously canonized by Peter and John. How they did this is staring us right in the face, if we would only see it. Surprisingly, Luke, who was not an eyewitness, was a key link in this process.
We also have to remember that the New Testament writings were addressed to those who knew the authors personally, In turn, their followers and disciples read the accounts and letters knowing the historical context in which the writings were given.
Nobody forges a fake account or a false prophecy and delivers it to supposed eyewitnesses of the events all the while expecting them to receive the writing as inspired and inerrant. All the extant books of the New Testament canon have this self-authenticating quality. No other existing books from the first century are like this.
Simply, if a book were not authentic, whether it was written before or after 70 A.D., the Christians around at the time would have known it.
I also recently discovered that the Apostles James and John were Jesus’ first cousins, another surprise. It’s easy to make too much of the “holy family” status of Jesus disciples, but I also think it’s important not to understate it. I am going to write more soon about how the authority derived from just four men, James the brother of Jesus, Peter, John and Paul, is enough to self-validate the entire New Testament canon.
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Your comments are welcome!
What is true Revival and Spiritual Awakening?
Discover the answer in this eyewitness account by Dennis Kinlaw, President of Asbury College, Wilmore, Kentucky, who recounts the story of a visitation of the Holy Spirit in 1970. This is the presentation that has continued to spark the flames of Revival in the hearts of people around the world. Contains eyewitness footage from the Revival at Asbury College in 1970 in Wilmore, Kentucky.
Certain to challenge you to greater holiness and a deeper commitment to full-scale revival. Original news and private footage has been included. If you are a student who longs to see a spiritual awakening at your school, you must see this video!
“This simple video does a wonderful job of conveying something of God’s heart and power, Everyone we have ever shown this to has received an immediate impartation of faith for revival and the power of prayer.”
— Bob and Rose Weiner, Weiner Ministries Int’l
Running Time: 40 minutes
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Revival, Resistance, Reformation, Revolution
An Introduction to the Doctrines of Interposition and Nullification
In 1776, a short time after the Declaration of Independence was adopted, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin were assigned to design an official seal for the United States of America. Their proposed motto was Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God. America owes its existence to centuries of Christian political philosophy. Our nation provided a model for liberty copied by nations the world over.
By the 21st century, we need a “Puritan Storm” to sweep away the Hegelian notion that the state is “God walking on earth.” We need revival and reformation in full force to vanquish the problems that plague us as a nation — from government controlled healthcare — to abortion on demand — to same sex “marriage.” This booklet gives a primer on our founders’ Christian idea of government and examines how the doctrine of nullification was woven into the Constitution as a safeguard against federal tyranny. It concludes with the history and theology of civil resistance. A Second American Revolution is coming with the Word of God growing mightily and prevailing! (Acts 19:20).
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“Give me liberty or give me death!”
Patrick Henry’s famous declaration not only helped launch the War for Independence, it also perfectly summarized the mindset that gave birth to, and sustained, the unprecedented experiment in Christian liberty that was America.
The freedom our Founders envisioned was not freedom from suffering, want, or hard work. Nor was it freedom to indulge every appetite or whim without restraint—that would merely be servitude to a different master. No, the Founders’ passion was to live free before God, unfettered by the chains of autocracy, shackles that slowly but inexorably bind men when the governments they fashion fail to recognize and uphold freedom’s singular, foundational truth: that all men are created in the image of God, and are thereby co-equally endowed with the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
This presentation is a similar call, not to one but many. By reintroducing the principles of freedom that gave birth to America, it is our prayer that Jesus, the true and only ruler over the nations, will once again be our acknowledged Sovereign, that we may again know and exult in the great truth that “where the Spirit of the LORD is, there is liberty” (2 Cor. 3:17).
Welcome to the Second American Revolution!
This DVD features “Liberty: The Model of Christian Liberty” along with “Dawn’s Early Light: A Brief History of America’s Christian Foundations.” Bonus features include a humorous but instructive collection of campaign ads and Eric Holmberg’s controversial YouTube challenge concerning Mitt Romney’s campaign for president.
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That Swiss Hermit Strikes Again!
Dr. Schaeffer, who was one of the most influential Christian thinkers in the twentieth century, shows that secular humanism has displaced the Judeo-Christian consensus that once defined our nation’s moral boundaries. Law, education, and medicine have all been reshaped for the worse as a consequence. America’s dominant worldview changed, Schaeffer charges, when Christians weren’t looking.
Schaeffer lists two reasons for evangelical indifference: a false concept of spirituality and fear. He calls on believers to stand against the tyranny and moral chaos that come when humanism reigns-and warns that believers may, at some point, be forced to make the hard choice between obeying God or Caesar. A Christian Manifesto is a thought-provoking and bracing Christian analysis of American culture and the obligation Christians have to engage the culture with the claims of Christ.
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Is there a connection between pagan religion and the abortion industry?
This powerful presentation traces the biblical roots of child sacrifice and then delves into the social, political and cultural fall-out that this sin against God and crime against humanity has produced in our beleaguered society.
Conceived as a sequel and update to the 1988 classic, The Massacre of Innocence, the new title, The Abortion Matrix, is entirely fitting. It not only references abortion’s specific target – the sacred matrix where human beings are formed in the womb in the very image of God, but it also implies the existence of a conspiracy, a matrix of seemingly disparate forces that are driving this holocaust.
The occult activity surrounding the abortion industry is exposed with numerous examples. But are these just aberrations, bizarre yet anomalous examples of abortionists who just happen to have ties to modern day witchcraft? Or is this representative of something deeper, more sinister and even endemic to the entire abortion movement?
As the allusion to the film of over a decade ago suggests, the viewer may learn that things are not always as they appear to be. The Abortion Matrix reveals the reality of child-killing and strikes the proper moral chord to move hearts to fulfill the biblical responsibility to rescue those unjustly sentenced to death and to speak for those who cannot speak for themselves (Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9).
Speakers include: George Grant, Peter Hammond, RC Sproul Jr., Paul Jehle, Lou Engle, Rusty Thomas, Flip Benham, Janet Porter and many more.
Ten parts, over three hours of instruction!
Running Time: 195 minutes
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